Cyclones in 1864, 1867, and 1870, however, devastated the poorer, low-lying areas. It was Hedges’ idea to build a fortified port close to the mouth of the Hooghly River to protect British interests from other European powers as well as from subordinates of the Nawab of Bengal. The turn of the 20th century marked the beginning of a troublesome period for Calcutta. This area around Fort William-Calcutta-became the seat of the British province known as the Bengal Presidency. In 1814 the Lottery Committee was constituted to finance public improvement by means of lotteries, and between 1814 and 1836 it took some effective measures to improve conditions. The Bengal Army led by Nawab Sirajud Daula attacked and laid siege to the fort and the British surrendered on June 20, 1756. In 1858, administrative power was handed over from the East India Company to the British Crown, and in 1869 the foundation stone for Victoria Memorial Hall was laid by Prince of Wales (opened in 1921). There were so many palaces in the British sector of the city that it was named the “city of palaces.” Outside the British town were built the mansions of the newly rich, as well as clusters of huts. The Indian sector of Calcutta also became a busy hub of commerce and was thronged with people from throughout India and many other parts of Asia. Insistent agitation led to the annulment of this partition in 1911, but at that time the capital of British India was removed from Calcutta to Delhi, where the government could enjoy relative calm. In 1773 Bombay (now Mumbai) and Madras (now Chennai) became subordinate to the government at Fort William. With its proto-industrial economy, Bengal contributed to the first Industrial Revolution in Britain (particularly in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution). By successive stages, as British power extended over the subcontinent, the whole of northern India became a hinterland for the port of Calcutta. This section of the town was called the European Town but colloquially as the White Town. The Calcutta Scottish was inspected by the Prince of Wales in 1928. It became capital of British in 1771 after the defeat of Siraj-uddullah. In this sense, "British India" did not include the princely states directly ruled by Indian princes, though under a close eye from the British authorities. There was a bastion in each corner to provide flanking fire, here shown as conical projections. As the construction progressed, the South- East Bastion and nearby walls by the Hooghly River was added by Sir Charles Eyre. The abolition of inland customs duties in 1835 created an open market, and the construction of railways (beginning in 1854) further quickened the development of business and industry. In 1699 the EIC declared Bengal as a separate Presidency and named the fort to be built in Calcutta as Fort William after the then British monarch William III. Hindustan under the Great Mughals was an economic superpower, and Bengal was its most glittering, coveted, asset. Find premium, high-resolution stock photography at Getty Images. Kolkata - Kolkata - Capital of British India: Calcutta did not become the capital of British India until 1772, when the first governor-general, Warren Hastings, transferred all important offices to the city from Murshidabad, the provincial Mughal capital. For most of the 17th century the commercial interests of the East India Company (EIC) was managed from Fort St. George in Madras (Chennai). It was built by Colonel Robert Clive after the Battle of Plassey (1757) and the British settlement of Calcutta grew around it. Calcutta ou Kolkata depuis 2001 [Note 1] (bengali : কলকাতা, hindi : कोलकाता) est une ville du Nord-Est de l'Inde. 1717 The Mughal emperor Farrukh-siyar granted the East India Company freedom of trade in return for a yearly payment of 3,000 rupees. In 1608, the English East India Company established a settlement at Surat (now in the state of Gujarat), and this became the company's first headquarters town. 1699 East India Company started developing Calcutta as a Presidency city. The names of different quarters of the city—such as Kumartuli (the potters’ district) and Sankaripara (the conch-shell workers’ district)—still indicate the various occupational castes of the people who became residents of the growing metropolis. The north face ran inland for 310 feet and south face 500 feet. Facebook Twitter Email WhatsApp. It was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, and in 1612 the company joined other already established European trading companies in Bengal. Calcutta was recaptured in January 1757 by Robert Clive, one of the founders of British power in India, and by the British admiral Charles Watson. In 1699 the EIC declared Bengal as a separate Presidency and named the fort to be built in Calcutta as Fort William after the then British monarch William III. The outline of the fort is an irregular rectangle. Kolkata, formerly known as Calcutta in English, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal and is located in eastern India on the east bank of the River Hooghly.The city was a colonial city developed by the British East India Company and then by the British Empire. The original Fort William, now referred to as “Old Fort William” was a totally different structure north of the current fort. These presidencies were multi-functional and included with army camp, ports, educational institutions, museums, libraries and etc. The large lake east of the fort is now called Lal Dighi. August 1, 2020 / Spotlight. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Map for: A History of the Military Transactions of the British Nation in Indostan, Robert Orme, 1778. Communal riots occurred in 1926, and, when the nationalist leader Mohandas Gandhi called for noncompliance with unjust laws, riots occurred in 1930. Writers’ Building, Tank Square. The White (British) Town was built on ground that had been raised and drained. Historical Atlas, Bangladesh, India since 1947, Pakistan, South Asia Pages see also EIC India for the history of India under the E.I.C., 1759-1858, British India for the history of British India 1858-1947 Old Fort William was functional between 1700 and 1756. The main entrance was to the landward side. The map is oriented east (north is to the left). The British started developing Calcutta as a presidency unit and sought permission from the Governor to use their own army to protect their factories, which they got. One of Kolkata's most enduring Raj-era edifices, it extends over an area of 70.9 hectares. Calcutta Senate Hall 1864 was designed by P.W.D. Mughal Bengal accounted for 12% of the world's GDP and was a major exporter of silk, cotton, saltpeter, and agricultural produce. Two distinct areas—one British, one Indian—came to coexist in Calcutta. A supreme court administering English law began to exercise original jurisdiction over the city as far as the Maratha Ditch (now Acharya Prafulla Chandra and Jagadish Chandra Bose roads). He was an actor and director, known for Karnarjun (1941), Kabuliwala (1957) and Jar Jetha Ghar (1949). By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. It was built during the early years of the Bengal Presidency of British India. Inside the walls was the imposing Factory or Government house, the armory, storage facilities and the clerks’ quarters. The construction of the fort was almost on the verge of completion and was yet to be named. The map is oriented east (north is to the left). In Bengal, the British inherited from the Mughals the biggest revenue earnings in the Indian subcontinent. The troops of the Calcutta Scottish regiment were joined with the Calcutta Volunteer Machine Guns and served in few British battles. It is the seat of the Diocese of Calcutta. Chhabi Biswas was born on July 12, 1900 in Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, British India as Sachindranath Biswas. In 1696 when Charles Eyre was Chief Agent of the EIC in Calcutta, the authorization for transfer of the Jagirdari (Tenancy) of the villages of Sutanuti, Kalikata and Govindapur was obtained from Prince Azim-us-Shan, the Governor of Bengal and grandson of Emperor Aurangzeb. One of Kolkata ’s finest historical monuments, Fort William was built during the time of the Bengal Presidency and is an architectural marvel. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Calcutta became the intellectual centre of the subcontinent. The presidency armies were the armies of the three presidencies of the East India Company's rule in India, later the forces of the British Crown in India, composed primarily of Indian sepoys.The presidency armies were named after the presidencies: the Bengal Army, the Madras Army and the Bombay Army.Initially, only Europeans served as commissioned or non-commissioned officers. However, manipulatively, they began constructing the fortress with all available manpower. [1] It is said to be the largest cathedral in Kolkata and the first Episcopal Church in Asia. PLAN FOR THE INTELLIGENCE OF THE MILITARY OPERATIONS AT CALCUTTA WHEN ATTACKED AND TAKEN BY SEERAJAH DOWLET 1756. The British Indian regiment was sent as aid to the Civil Power in 1930. This plan is that of the Old Fort William as it existed in 1756. Fort William is a fort built in Calcutta on the Eastern banks of the River Hooghly, the major distributary of the River Ganges, during the early years of the Bengal Presidency of British India. Meanwhile, as Calcutta’s population grew larger, social problems also became more insistent, as did demands for home rule for India. Download this stock image: Alipore Jail in Calcutta, India, built by the British to hold politcal prisoners during the time of British Rule over India. It increased to nearly 120,000 by 1752 and to 180,000 by 1821. The Fort was built by the East India Company in 1696. A supreme court administering English law … The cornerstone was laid in 1839; the building was completed in 1847. Engineers in classical style. Bengal, 1710, map published by Pieter van der Aa. Fort William in the modern city of Kolkata is the headquarters of the Eastern Command of the Indian Army. He died on June 11, 1962 in Calcutta [now Kolkata], West Bengal, India. Discovery of India – The Birth of the Bengal Presidency, Calcutta & the British Raj Part of the Spotlight feature Jewel in the Crown. The municipal corporation was established in 1841. Gobindapore was cleared of its forests, and the new Fort William was built on its present site, overlooking the Hugli at Calcutta, where it became the symbol of British … The shaded habitations in this map are marked as English Houses. Kolkata was the capital of the British Indian empire until 1911 when the capital was relocated to Delhi. Presidency College - 1870 Designed by Robert F. Chisholm in pure Italian style derived from Renaissance Classicism Lectures and Seminars are held in the hall Mayo College of Mant at Ajmer was built in Indo - saracenic. For example, the revenue of pre-colonial Dhaka alone was 1 million rupees in the 18th century (a high amount in that era). Fort William is a fort in Hastings, Calcutta . Calcutta was the capital of British India, and under colonial rule, it burgeoned into a thriving metropolis. A… It was named after King William III of England in 1700. The Indian merchants lived in the Black Town north of the fort whereas the Indians of lower socioeconomic class lived towards the south. After the victory of Clive over the Nawab in the battle of Plassey in 1757, Old Fort William was abandoned. Map of Calcutta (c. 1900), from the 10th edition of. From the late 18th century to the late 19th century, social and cultural activities in Calcutta were largely determined by British tastes and traditions, although the rich ‘natives’ also participated in recreational activities. Britishers built the three presidency cities in India during their rule and these are Bombay presidency (established in 1687), Calcutta presidency (established in 1690) and Madras Presidency (established in 1640). British mercantile, banking, and insurance interests flourished. The east face fronting the river extended 700 feet. A large number of Indian merchants flocked to the city. This in no way means it was an easy time in the timeline of Calcutta’s history. - DRPWXK from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. It was named after King William III of England and Ireland and II of Scotland. The site of the fort is marked with the letter a. Calcutta in 1756 was a segregated city. KM : 56 Qualité de la monnaie : SPL Métal : Cuivre Pays : INDIA-BRITISH Valeur faciale : Pice Atelier : Calcutta Type de produit : Monnaie Année : Year 37 (1829) 6.63 gr There is a brass line on the steps of the Kolkata GPO marking the southeast bastion of the fort. Calcutta did not become the capital of British India until 1772, when the first governor-general, Warren Hastings, transferred all important offices to the city from Murshidabad, the provincial Mughal capital. Before the coming of British Calcutta was just a village. 1/2 Roupie an 19 BRITISH INDIA – EAST INDIA COMPANY - BENGAL PRESIDENCY Calcutta n.d. (22mm, 5,79g, 12h) TTB Numismatique, monnaies anciennes, monnaies de collection, billets MA-SHOPS Garantie monnaies, billets et livres. In World War II, Japanese air raids upon the Calcutta docks caused damage and loss of life. By now the city, however, was self-sufficient in many ways and it continued to remain an important centre of administration even after the transfer of the capital. The most serious communal riots of all took place in 1946, when the partition of British India became imminent and tensions between Muslims and Hindus reached their height. 1715 British people completed building the Old Fort. Besides the English it housed large numbers of people of Portuguese, Armenian and Eurasian descent. The site of the fort is marked with the letter a. In 1773 Bombay (now Mumbai) and Madras (now Chennai) became subordinate to the government at Fort William. In 1690 the Chief Agent of Bengal, Job Charnock built an unauthorized settlement in Sutanuti and called it Calcutta after the nearby village of Kalikata. This plan is that of the Old Fort William as it existed in 1756. A mezzotint engraving of Fort William, Calcutta, the capital of the Bengal Presidency in British India 1735. Planned by British architect William Emerson, the building is constructed of white marble sourced from Rajasthan and combines Indian and British … - DR82ET from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. However, following the decline of the Mughal Empire in 1707 and after the East India Co… Completely separated from Bengal Presidency were Straits Settlements in 1867, Aden, Burma in 1937. The nawab was defeated shortly afterward at Plassey (June 1757), after which British rule in Bengal was assured. Calcutta became Presidency Town of East India Company in 1699 but the Bengal Presidency came into existence in 1765 after a treaty was signed between East India Company, Mughal Emperor and the Nawab of Audh. During this period, small units of the Calcutta Scottish were deployed on eighteen operations. This beautiful monument, one of Kolkata’s best known, was built between 1906 and 1921 in memory of Queen Victoria, following her death in 1901. Fort William, in ruins, had to be mostly re-built and this saw the introduction of military-style architecture to public buildings in urban settings. 1727 As per the order of King George I, a civil court was set up. Calcutta at that time was described as a pestilential town. View top-quality stock photos of Alipore Jail In Calcutta India Built By The British To Hold Political Prisoners. Three principal avenues led out of this entrance, at the end of each was an artillery battery. the capital of eastern Bengal and Assam. On the river side the rear entrance led to the Ghats or landing places. Download this stock image: Alipore Jail in Calcutta, India, built by the British to hold politcal prisoners during the time of British Rule over India. St. Anne’s church marked f, the first Anglican church of Kolkata, stood at the site of the Writers Building. It was at this time that the Grand Trunk Road from Calcutta to Peshawar (now in Pakistan) was completed. If we project this map into modern Kolkata the fort would be in the area of Dalhousie Square between Fairlie Place in the north and BTM Sarani in the south. Named after William III, the fort sits on the banks of the Hooghly River and was at the centre of the Battle of Plassey fought between the British and the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj-ud-Daulah. As the Bengal trade expanded the directors of the EIC created a separate agency for Bengal and in 1682, appointed one of their own, William Hedges, to become the first Chief Agent of Bengal. Victory in the June 1757 battle of Plassey opened up a vast majority of Northern India to the British and contributed to the emergence of Calcutta as the Imperial Capital. The only bridge linking Kolkata to its twin city Howrah over River Hooghly was built … It was also the first cathedral built in the overseas territory of the British Empire. Lord Curzon, viceroy of India, partitioned Bengal in 1905, making Dacca (now Dhaka, Bangl.) There were few good roads. Alipore Jail in Calcutta, India, built by the British to hold politcal prisoners during the time of British Rule over India.. Subscription-free stock image available for license. Growth of the city In 1717 the Mughal emperor Farrukh-Siyar granted the East India Company freedom of trade in return for a yearly payment of 3,000 rupees; this arrangement gave a great impetus to the growth of Calcutta. It sits on the eastern banks of the Hooghly River, the major distributary of the River Ganges. 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