[12], In October 1917, to mark the gallant behaviour of its inhabitants during the war, the City of Dunkirk was awarded the Croix de Guerre and, in 1919, the Legion of Honour and the British Distinguished Service Cross. [15] Hitler merely validated the order several hours later. Winston Churchill, the British Prime Minister, ordered any ship or boat available, large or small, to collect the stranded soldiers. [9], From 1915, the city experienced severe bombardment, including from the largest gun in the world in 1917, the German 'Lange Max'. The Dunkirkers briefly lost their home port when the city was conquered by the French in 1646 but Spanish forces recaptured the city in 1652. However, Hitler exercised restraint at Dunkirk, halting his panzer tanks short of the seaport only days before the evacuation. The population was 2,363 at the 2000 census. Dunkirk is a small town in the northernmost tip of France. The population of the commune at the 2016 census was 91,412. Omissions? In the late 13th century, when the Dampierre count Guy of Flanders entered into the Franco-Flemish War against his suzerain King Philippe IV of France, the citizens of Dunkirk sided with the French against their count, who at first was defeated at the 1297 Battle of Furnes, but reached de facto autonomy upon the victorious Battle of the Golden Spurs five years later and exacted vengeance. Dunkirk has co-operation agreements with: Dunkirk has an oceanic climate, with cool winters and warm summers. Dunkirk was a critical turning point in World War II.German dictator Adolf Hitler’s blitzkrieg strategy depended on maintaining concentrated forward momentum in its invasion of France and Belgium; Germany had overrun the region by May 1940. In 1658, as a result of the long war between France and Spain, it was captured after a siege by Franco-English forces following the battle of the Dunes. Dunkirk was again contested in 1944, with the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division attempting to liberate the city in September, as Allied forces surged northeast after their victory in the Battle of Normandy. Dunkirk contains intense and realistic sequences of war violence with many casualties by shooting, drowning, burning, and explosion shown. Dunkirk's position in the North Sea and its proximity to the rich region of Flanders meant the town inevitably changed hands several times: in 1659 it belonged to the English; in 1662 it was bought back by Louis XIV. Dunkirk lies just south-east of the Cheshire border. At the beginning of the Eighty Years' War, Dunkirk was briefly in the hands of the Dutch rebels, from 1577. The French government developed the town as a fortified port. England 1659–1662 Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. During the Second World War, in the May 1940 Battle of France, the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), while aiding the French and Belgian armies, were forced to retreat in the face of the overpowering German Panzer attacks. The Tour du Leughenaer (Tour du Leughenaer [fr]) (the Liar's Tower), The remains of the East Mole of Dunkirk harbour, pictured in 2009. Using this measurement and the latitudes of the two cities they could calculate the distance between the North Pole and the Equator in classical French units of length and hence produce the first prototype metre which was defined as being one ten millionth of that distance. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/place/Dunkirk-France, Dunkirk - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). 25 Best Shows of the Year. The city along with Fort-Mardyck was awarded to England in the peace the following year as agreed in the Franco-English alliance against Spain. Until the middle of the 20th century, French Flemish (the local variety of the Dutch language) was commonly spoken in Dunkirk; it has largely been forsaken, although it can still be heard. The population of Dunkirk is around 12 thousand. Dunkirk Tourism: Tripadvisor has 26,651 reviews of Dunkirk Hotels, Attractions, and Restaurants making it your best Dunkirk resource. Dunkirk is a city in Blackford and Jay counties in the U.S. state of Indiana. The belfry was chosen as the reference point in Dunkirk. The name of Dunkirk derives from West Flemish dun(e) 'dune' or 'dun' and kerke 'church',[citation needed] which together means 'church in the dunes'.[5]. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. However, the archduke defeated the French troops in 1479 at the Battle of Guinegate. It was originally the western tower of the Gothic church of Saint Éloi (damaged in World Wars I and II) but was separated from it by a street in the 18th century. [7], During the reign of King Louis XIV, a large number of commerce raiders and pirates once again made their base at Dunkirk. The town was by-passed masking the German garrison with Allied troops, notably 1st Czechoslovak Armoured Brigade. It lies along the Strait of Dover between Calais and the Belgian frontier, 49 miles (79 km) northwest of Lille by road. The following is an excerpt from TIME-LIFE’s new special edition, World War II: Dunkirk, available on Amazon. More-recent diversification has led to the development of pharmaceuticals and the production of cans for the beverage industry. Dunkirk’s great artificial port was largely rebuilt after 1945 and subsequently expanded to form a deepwater port and industrial zone to the west of the town. The Battle of Dunkirk (French: Bataille de Dunkerque) was fought in Dunkirk (Dunkerque), France, during the Second World War, between the Allies and Nazi Germany.As the Allies were losing the Battle of France on the Western Front, the Battle of Dunkirk was the defence and evacuation to Britain of British and other Allied forces in Europe from 26 May to 4 June 1940. Imports dominate and include iron ore, coking coal, and crude and refined oil. Dunkirk Dunkirk is a town in the region of Hauts-de-France in France.The town is a historic resort, 10 km from the border with Belgium.If you're coming from the UK, it's a great place to start your journey further into the Continent, but also a great holiday… The old port zone near the centre of the town, following the closure of the shipyards, has been redeveloped, with retailing, a maritime museum, and a marina. The railway line from Dunkirk to De Panne and Adinkerke, Belgium, is closed and has been dismantled in places. In September 2018, Dunkirk's public transit service introduced free public transport, thereby becoming the largest city in Europe to do so. As Maximilian was the son of Emperor Frederick III, all Flanders was immediately seized by King Louis XI of France. This work was completed by 1678. [citation needed] Count Philip I (1157–1191) brought further large tracts of marshland under cultivation, laid out the first plans to build a Canal from Dunkirk to Bergues and vested the Dunkirkers with market rights. Dunkirk is located in New York City, United States. 338,226 men (including 123,000 French soldiers) were evacuated – the miracle of Dunkirk, as Churchill called it. Diese leben zumeist von der brachialen Action, den zahlreichen Gefechten und Kampfszenen und der Mission, der sich die Protagonisten stellen müssen. Assessing the situation, von Rundstedt advocated holding his armor west and south of Dunkirk, as the marshy terrain was unsuitable for armored operations and many units were worn down from advance west. They were ejected by King Charles VI of France, but left great devastations in and around the town. This clause was overturned in the subsequent Treaty of Versailles of 1783. For the people in western Europe, World War Two was about to … Dunkirk is a commune in Nord, a French department in northern France. As a strategic point, Dunkirk has always been exposed to political greed, by Duke Robert I of Bar in 1395, by Louis de Luxembourg in 1435 and finally by the Austrian archduke Maximilian I of Habsburg, who in 1477 married Mary of Burgundy, sole heiress of late Duke Charles the Bold. [16] This lull gave the British and French a few days to fortify their defences. Traveling to Army Group A's headquarters at Charleville on May 24, Hitler urged its commander, General Gerd von Rundstedt, to press the attack. The Gare de Dunkerque railway station offers connections to Gare de Calais-Ville, Gare de Lille Flandres, Arras and Paris, and several regional destinations in France. Unexpectedly, the German Panzer attack halted for several days at a critical juncture. England and France 1658–1659 The population of the commune at the 2016 census was 91,412. The name Dunkirk derives from West Flemish "dun" (Dune) and "Kerke" (Church). The jetties, their forts, and the port facilities were demolished in 1713 under the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht. Alternative Title: Dunkerque. In the war against Covid, where is the government's Dunkirk spirit? The cuisine of Dunkirk closely resembles Flemish cuisine; perhaps one of the best known dishes is coq à la bière – chicken in a creamy beer sauce. Dunkirk, French Dunkerque, town and seaport, Nord département, Hauts-de-France région, northern France. In June 1792 the French astronomers Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre and Pierre François André Méchain set out to measure the meridian arc distance from Dunkirk to Barcelona, two cities lying on approximately the same longitude as each other and also the longitude through Paris. Jean Bart was the most famous. However, the film never lingers on the deaths and avoids showing blood and gore almost entirely. In exchange for another lockdown, we need to see greater action, innovation and a timetable for rolling out the vaccine Dunkirk, along with the rest of Flanders, was incorporated into the Habsburg Netherlands and upon the 1581 secession of the Seven United Netherlands, remained part of the Southern Netherlands, which were held by Habsburg Spain (Spanish Netherlands) as Imperial fiefs. Dunkirk is located at 40°22′28″N 85°12′35″W / 40.37444°N 85.20972°W / 40.37444; -85.20972 (40.37, -85.21), primarily within Jay County but with a section neighboring Blackford County. Habsburg Netherlands 1482–1556 The area remained much disputed between the Kingdom of Spain, the United Netherlands, the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France. Forced by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 to demolish the fortifications, France was not allowed to rebuild them until the late 18th century. First mentioned in 1067 as Dunkerk (Flemish: “Church of the Dunes”), the town was besieged and sacked six times during the Middle Ages and was in the centre of conflicts between France, Spain, England, and Holland in the 16th and 17th centuries before it was finally recovered by France in 1662. Dunkirk (UK: /dʌnˈkɜːrk/, US: /ˈdʌnkɜːrk/;[3][4] French: Dunkerque [dœ̃kɛʁk] (listen); French Flemish: Duunkerke; Dutch: Duinkerke(n) [ˈdœynkɛrkə(n)] (listen)) is a commune in Nord, a French department in northern France. Spanish Netherlands 1652–1658 [26] Summer high temperatures average around 20 to 21 °C (68 to 70 °F), being significantly influenced by the marine currents. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. However, in the course of the Western Schism from 1378, English supporters of Pope Urban VI (the Roman claimant) disembarked at Dunkirk, captured the city and flooded the surrounding estates. Dunkirk, and the evacuation associated with the troops trapped on Dunkirk, was called a “miracle” by Winston Churchill. To seize the now strategically insignificant town would consume too many Allied resources which were needed elsewhere. [22] As of August 2019, approximately 5% of 2000 people surveyed had used the free bus service to completely replace their cars.[23]. Guy's son, Count Robert III (1305–1322), nevertheless granted further city rights to Dunkirk; his successor Count Louis I (1322–1346) had to face the Peasant revolt of 1323–1328, which was crushed by King Philippe VI of France at the 1328 Battle of Cassel, whereafter the Dunkirkers again were affected by the repressive measures of the French king. Dunkirk (French: Dunkerque, Dutch: Duinkerke) is a town in the region of Nord-Pas de Calais in France.. Dunkirk, French Dunkerque, town and seaport, Nord département, Hauts-de-France région, northern France. After the count had been killed in the 1346 Battle of Crécy, his son and successor Count Louis II of Flanders (1346–1384) signed a truce with the English; the trade again flourished and the port was significantly enlarged. Christopher Nolan’s Dunkirk is likely to be the most widely seen or read depiction of history released in 2017. Dunkirk is a census-designated place (CDP) in Calvert County, Maryland, United States. The area is very fast-growing, with many large estate homes. Count Louis remained a loyal vassal of the French king upon the outbreak of the Hundred Years' War with England in 1337, and prohibited the maritime trade, which led to another revolt by the Dunkirk citizens. Many wounded who were unable to walk were abandoned. Granted, Dunkirk is not a destination for a two-week break, any more than you’d spend a fortnight in Harwich. The basin was linked to the sea by a channel dug through coastal sandbanks secured by two jetties. Dunkirk is a beautiful old small city in the northernmost part of France, located on the shores of the La Manche Strain, about 7 miles west of the border between France and Belgium. Spanish forces under Duke Alexander Farnese of Parma re-established Spanish rule in 1583 and it became a base for the notorious Dunkirkers. Looking to watch Dunkirk? The surrounding wetlands were drained and cultivated by the monks of nearby Bergues Abbey. The population was 2,362 at the 2010 census. The English governors were Sir William Lockhart (1658–60), Sir Edward Harley (1660–61) and Lord Rutherford (1661–62). France 1662–1870 The town was liberated by the U.S. Army in May 1945, but more than three-quarters of its houses were destroyed in the fighting. It has the third-largest French harbour. The gap left by the Belgian Army stretched from Ypres to Dixmude. Forty thousand Allied soldiers (some who carried on fighting after the official evacuation) were captured or forced to make their own way home through a variety of routes including via neutral Spain. Spanish Netherlands 1583–1646 However, according to the Official War Diary of Army Group A, its commander, Generaloberst Gerd von Rundstedt, ordered the halt to allow maintenance on his tanks, half of which were out of service, and to protect his flanks which were exposed and, he thought, vulnerable. The British Expeditionary Force being surrounded by invading Germans at Dunkirk and evacuated from France by a motley rescue fleet of military ships and private boats; from. It took over 900 vessels to evacuate the BEF, with two-thirds of those rescued embarking via the harbour, and over 100,000 taken off the beaches. My father was at Dunkirk and told me very little of what happened. A fishing village arose late in the tenth century, in the originally flooded coastal area of the English Channel south of the Western Scheldt, when the area was held by the Counts of Flanders, vassals of the French Crown. Dunkirk, and the evacuation associated with the troops trapped on Dunkirk, was called a “miracle” by Winston Churchill. Louis XIV had important fortifications built there to make it a safe base for Jean Bart and other famous French corsairs who pillaged foreign ships. What county is Dunkirk in? During World War II, in May–June 1940, the British Expeditionary Force and other Allied troops, cut off by the Germans, were evacuated from Dunkirk to England by naval vessels and hundreds of civilian boats. Answer (1 of 3): Dunkirk is a seaport that is located between the Belgian coast and Calais. More than 400,000 soldiers were trapped in the pocket as the German Army closed in for the kill. [17], On 14 December 2002, the Norwegian car carrier MV Tricolor collided with the Bahamian-registered Kariba and sank off Dunkirk Harbour, causing a hazard to navigation in the English Channel. Where is Dunkirk. Pop. The town museum, also partly destroyed in 1940, has preserved a collection of 17th-century paintings by minor Dutch masters. [8], Dunkirk's port was used extensively during the war by British forces who brought in dock workers from, among other places, Egypt and China. Fighting in Belgium and France, the BEF and a portion of the French Army became outflanked by the Germans and retreated to the area around the port of Dunkirk. Dunkirk was the most easterly cross-channel measuring point for the Anglo-French Survey (1784–1790), which used trigonometry to calculate the precise distance between the Paris Observatory and the Royal Greenwich Observatory. (1999) 97,957; (2014 est.) Prussian occupation 1870–1873 [21] The definitive metre bar, manufactured from platinum, was presented to the French legislative assembly on 22 June 1799. Several weeks after the scheme had been introduced, the city's mayor, Patrice Vergriete, reported that there had been 50% increase in passenger numbers on some routes, and up to 85% on others. Spanish Netherlands 1556–1577 The writer Robert W. Service, then a war correspondent for the Toronto Star, was mistakenly arrested as a spy and narrowly avoided being executed out of hand. Dunkirk Rebels 1577–1583 The city's population, which had been 39,000 in 1914, reduced to fewer than 15,000 in July 1916 and 7,000 in the autumn of 1917. Upon the extinction of the Counts of Flanders with the death of Louis II in 1384, Flanders was acquired by the Burgundian, Duke Philip the Bold.