(Hu-penda) As this lacks the information about the acting subject, the personal pronoun is used to clarify on the subject, if not clear from the context.Example: Wewe hufanya (You usually do) From the central idea of tree, which is thin, tall, and spreading, comes an extension to other long or extended things or parts of things, such as mwavuli 'umbrella', moshi 'smoke', msumari 'nail'; and from activity there even come active instantiations of verbs, such as mfuo "metal forging", from -fua "to forge", or mlio "a sound", from -lia "to make a sound". There are three basic inflection groups which differ only very slightly from one another: Common verbs are the largest group of verbs in Swahili. The subjunctive may be used on its own with a second person subject as a more polite alternative to an imperative. Additionally, in (the third person singular of) noun class 1, the prefix yu- is used instead of a- as the subject of a locative copula. Different types of affixes serve different functions. Most of the time, verbs will not have all slots filled. [x] exists in free variation with h, and is only distinguished by some speakers. There is, strictly speaking, no negative form of the situational, however the negative subjunctive may occasionally be used for this purpose.[11]. The habitual verb form is unusual in that it does not allow subject prefixes to appear on it. For more information, see Appendix:Swahili verbs.. Category:Swahili verb forms: Swahili verbs that are conjugated to display grammatical relations other than the main form. Wikipedia began as a related project for Nupedia.Nupedia was a free online English-language encyclopedia project. kuweni) or used in the subjunctive ("polite imperative") form: uwe (pl. Six different forms of verbal concord exist. En español , y en la mayoría de lenguas europeas, el verbo auxiliar es una forma finita conjugada del verbo, ya que es el núcleo del ST; que acompaña a una forma no finita de otro verbo que proporciona el significado léxico: estoy pensando en ello. It may occur in the same contexts as other nouns and may, occasionally, even be derived into the locative classes by means of attaching the suffix -ni, as in kuangukani "in falling" (i.e. The emphatic or focusing copula ndi- places its subject in focus, emphasising that it is that particular referent and not another. It is the diminutive sense that has been furthest extended. This may be derived by analogy from the -to- of the negative infinitive, and may also disambiguate between positive and negative where the only difference otherwise would be an h- at the beginning of the negative word. The standard forms of each are jingine for class 6 and nyingine for classes 9 and 10.[6][7]. Note that kuwa na has an existential meaning when the subject is in a locative class. These may be regarded as inherently inchoative verbs. In terms of meaning, groups of similar nouns tend to belong to similar noun classes. There are a few digraphs for native sounds, ch, sh, ng and ny; q and x are not used,[38] c is not used apart from the digraph ch, unassimilated English loans and, occasionally, as a substitute for k in advertisements. Swahili language to be spoken by the Swahili people, who live on the coast of East Africa and on the islands near the coast, including Zanzibar, which is now a part of Tanzania. The additional -ku- in brackets is the infinitive marker of the original verb, although it may be omitted as long as stress rules allow. For class 11 nouns, the plural is in class 10. The verb template in Swahili differs from the verb template in English. Prefixes are always attached in a fixed order; the object prefix always comes last, immediately before the verb stem, while the subject prefix comes before the object prefix. During the struggle for Tanganyika independence, the Tanganyika African National Union used Swahili as language of mass organisation and political movement. The British decided to formalise it as the language to be used across the East African region (although in British East Africa [Kenya and Uganda] most areas used English and various Nilotic and other Bantu languages while Swahili was mostly restricted to the coast). Finally, diminutives often denote contempt, and contempt is sometimes expressed against things that are dangerous. Simply type in the verb you wish to conjugate and hit the Conjugate! In most languages a verb may agree with the person, gender, and/or number … "while falling"). Various estimates have been put forward, which vary widely, ranging from 50 million to 100 million. Swahili (kiswahili på swahili) er eit bantuspråk snakka over store område i Aust-Afrika.Etter Guthrie-klassifiseringa har det nummer G40, dvs. Its negative equivalent is formed with the negative subject prefix plus -ku-. There are five verb templates which can be used to create relative clauses. The locative clitics -po, -ko and -mo can be added to the end of the continuative forms. This is due to a historical process in which the L became deleted between two examples of the same vowel (kondoo was originally pronounced kondolo, which survives in certain dialects). These suffixes may also be added to verbs and nouns to create causative verbs from them. Nouns placed as modifiers after other nouns may also be regarded as invariable adjectives, such as msichana kiziwi "Deaf girl", which has a class 1 prefix m- and a class 7 prefix ki-. Thus, the plural of class 1 mtu "person" is class 2 watu "people". / "I told her she should not go. ", "those unusual houses", "those houses which are not usual", "We have a problem because I don't have any money. Note in the following table that the marker for the future tense is -taka- with a following relative morpheme, rather than the simple -ta- which occurs otherwise. The negative infinitive is derived from the verb kutoa "to subtract", "to not do", although it is rarely encountered in its full form for this use. Kidigo (pia huitwa Chidigo) ni lugha ya Kibantu nchini Tanzania na Kenya inayozungumzwa na Wadigo.Mwaka wa 1994 idadi ya wasemaji wa Kidigo nchini Kenya imehesabiwa kuwa watu 217,000. )", "SWAHILI AS A TENSE PROMINENT LANGUAGE. Relatives are verbs used as adjectives by being relativised using a relative prefix (or suffix) which agrees with the noun's class. Fundamental » All languages » Swahili » Lemmas » Verbs. The demonstratives in Swahili may be used either as adjectives, with a noun, or as pronouns, standing alone. In any TAM form, when the object is 2nd person plural, this -(e)ni prefix may also occur, but this is not shown in this table. Note that the verb -ua "to kill" has an irregular passive form: -uawa, although the regular -uliwa is occasionally used. The perfect indicates an action or situation which occurred in the past, similarly to the past tense, however the focus of the utterance is on the relevance of this past action to the present moment. Swahili is an agglutinative language, which gives rise to a complex structure for verbs in the form of affixes. Actual definitions can be given after a colon as shown when it … For some speakers, the same rule applies to the simple genitive preposition -a (giving ya in singular and za in plural), however for most speakers wa is used for all animate nouns regardless of number or class. Swahili played a major role in spreading both Christianity and Islam in East Africa. Learning Swahili verbs has been made easy in this video. All of these derivational suffixes, in turn, also contain the final -a, which is dropped when additional suffixes (both derivational and inflectional) are appended. Animacy agreements can often distinguish different meanings of the same noun, such as ndege, which means "bird(s)" when animate and "aeroplane(s)" when inanimate. For example, there are no true adjectives equivalent to the English adjectives "open" and "dead", however the verbs kufa "to die" and kufunguliwa "to be opened", when relativised, convey these meanings. Note that the standalone form of the 2nd person plural prefix m- is not *m but mu. The plural form, with the suffix -ni, is used when addressing multiple people. The Loan verbs, also frequently called "Arabic" verbs, are those which do not end in -a in the infinitive. * Although rarely used, the "indefinite present" adds a small complication to the presentation of Swahili grammar as the -a- marking the tense causes the subject concords to undergo reduction in the same manner as the prefixes of the genitive preposition -a. The personal pronouns each have their own genitive stem, for example: The genitive preposition is formed from the subject concord of verbs (which you can see here), plus -a. yeye fanya kazi sana instead of yeye anafanya "he works hard"; kwenda pika chakula instead of kwenda ukapike chakula "go and cook food". The reflexive prefix only occurs as an object, and refers back to the subject of the sentence. For sounds still not covered, other smaller but well-known languages are used, such as Swahili, Turkish, and Zulu. Many nouns for liquids are in class 6. BAKITA is an organisation dedicated to the development and advocacy of Swahili as a means of national integration in Tanzania. This might be the historical explanation for kifaru "rhinoceros", kingugwa "spotted hyena", and kiboko "hippopotamus" (perhaps originally meaning "stubby legs"). Examples of the latter are kitoto "infant", from mtoto "child"; kitawi "frond", from tawi "branch"; and chumba (ki-umba) "room", from nyumba "house". In the process of naturalization[41] of borrowings within Swahili, loanwords are often reinterpreted, or reanalysed,[42] as if they already contain a Swahili class prefix. The anterior marker -sha- (or sometimes -kwisha-) is a relatively new TAM marker that derives diachronically from the verb kwisha "to finish, to run out". Swahili is spoken by an estimated 50 million people and, after Arabic, is the most widely understood language in Africa. in singular and zangu, zako, zetu etc. Most other authorities consider Comorian to be a Sabaki language, distinct from Swahili. The three clitics, -po, -ko and -mo correspond to the locative classes 16, 17 and 18 respectively and indicate "definite", "indefinite" and "internal" location respectively. The following table shows the structure of the verb templates, notably the positioning of the relative morpheme, here labelled "REL". Verbos terminados en -qui que pierden la vocal terminando en -c presentan una irregularidad ortográfica, porque fonológicamente solo hay pérdida de vocal -qui /-ki/ > -c /-k/)). Experimenta canvis pel que fa al paradigma, ja que pren desinències diferents a les que són habituals en els verbs regulars. The Arabic loan noun mahali "place" (and its variations: pahali, mahala and pahala) is the only noun which inherently belongs to the locative class. Under the strict definition of the word, Swahili does not make use of infixes. See Appendix:Swahili verbal derivation for more. The following verbs have irregular imperatives, regular forms may be heard, particularly by non-native speakers and particularly in Kenya, and regular forms may be interpreted as less polite: The verb -acha may informally be given the imperative form wacha (pl. The demonstrative generally follows the noun but it can also precede. A few words of this group, however, add -lewa (after an e) or -liwa (after i). The genitive preposition -a (sometimes termed a "connector", "possessive" or "associative" preposition) has a similar role to that of the genitive case of some other languages. people or animals, so it does not generally mean it. Swahili is characteristically Bantu in its grammar, and it has a large vocabulary of word roots traceable to a common Bantu stock.Swahili nouns are divided into classes on the basis of their singular and plural prefixes; prefixes are also used to bring verbs, adjectives, and demonstrative and possessive forms into agreement with the subject of a sentence. The negative subjunctive is indicated by adding the syllable -si- into the tense slot, with the positive subject prefix being used rather than the negative. This mainly occurs when the pronoun is not added only for emphasis, but is needed (e.g. ye yote, vyo vyote) however it is now more frequently written together. There are two present tenses in Swahili. The applicative suffix, frequently called the 'prepositional extension' in learning resources, adds one of various meanings to a verb usually represented by a preposition in English such as "to", "for", "in", "with" or even "from". In many cases, the noun introduced in a genitive adjective phrase receives an additional ki- prefix, such as -a kimataifa "international" (from mataifa "nations") and -a kihistoria "historic" (from historia "history"). For derivational forms, see Appendix:Swahili verbal derivation . Swahili is a language that fuses African Bantu with Arabic. Note that it is then always written and pronounced with the na separate from the verb. Watu wengine hupatwa na athari za mizio kwa dawa hizi. The exact number of Swahili speakers, be they native or second-language speakers, is unknown and is a matter of debate. Swahili nouns are grouped into noun classes based on the prefix they have, with each class having a prescribed number. Swahili Grammar: Verb conjugation, part 1 - Verbos intransitivos terminados en ya cuando pierden la última vocal, cambian su terminación en x. El pretérito imperfecto (o copretérito) Animate nouns in classes 9/10 may exhibit a slight aberration from this pattern. Most notably, the forms lingine in class six, ingine or yingine in class 9 and zingine in class 10 may be heard. Veu taules de conjugacions de verbs regulars i irregulars. Several Swahili consonants do not have equivalents in Arabic, and for them, often no special letters were created unlike, for example, Urdu script. 2018. This -y- suffix combined with consonants and changed their pronunciation, palatalising or "softening" them. The genitive pronominal forms -angu, -ako, -ake, -etu, -enu and -ao are frequently inflected with a group of nouns referring to close human relationships with their appropriate class 9/10 concords, regardless of the fact that they are animate (giving yangu, yako, yetu etc. Where context is clearly past, a narrative may also be begun with -ka-. those referring to people or animals) which are not in classes 1/2 generally take the agreement prefixes (concords) from classes 1/2 as if they did belong to it. 'Derived terms' sections should use {}, where all the derivative verbs and nouns can be listed. The exceptions to this include cases when the copula ni (or its negative counterpart si) is used, as well as with the habitual form of the verb, which lacks subject prefixes. Here, "noun class" is used with the former meaning. It is formed by suffixing, Medial/Referential ("the aforementioned"), referring to something that has been previously mentioned. For example, the nouns wasichana "girls" and wasimamizi "overseers" belong to class 2, characterised by the prefix wa-, whereas kifuniko "lid, cover" and kisukari "diabetes" belong to class 7, characterised by the prefix ki-. Animate nouns (referring to a person or animal) are an exception and these occur with concords of the noun classes 1 (singular) or 2 (plural). The subjunctive (sometimes referred to as an optative) expresses hypothetical situations, wishes and requests. Similarly, mwanamume "man" becomes wanaume "men" in plural, although the singular form mwanaume is also common. The continuative is a special verb form unique to the verb "to be", meaning "is still", "are still" or "am still". Swahili may be described in several ways depending on the aspect being considered. In Kenya, Chama cha Kiswahili cha Taifa (CHAKITA) was established in 1998 to research and propose means by which Kiswahili can be integrated to a national language and made compulsory in schools the same year. In Agwuele, Augustine and Bodomo, Adams (eds), The Routledge Handbook of African Linguistics, 359–375. Examples of the former are kisu "knife", kiti "chair" (from mti "tree, wood"), chombo "vessel" (a contraction of ki-ombo). -ingi "many, much"). tammikuuta 1941 Kitee) on suomalainen Afrikan kielten ja kulttuurien sekä kielitieteen tutkija.Hurskainen työskenteli Afrikan tutkimuksen professorina Helsingin yliopiston Aasian ja Afrikan kielten ja kulttuurien laitoksella vuosina 1989–2006. [5][6] Comorian, spoken in the Comoros Islands, is sometimes considered a dialect of Swahili, although other authorities consider it a distinct language. Arvi Johannes Hurskainen (s.25. Derek Nurse, Thomas T. Spear. Fundamental » All languages » Swahili » Lemmas » Verbs » Reciprocal verbs. The object concord is generally optional; although some sources maintain that it must always be used with animate objects, this appears not to be the case as counter-examples are commonplace. There is no actual negative imperative form. These two possibilities may be disambiguated by placing the pronoun after the verb: ninawaona ninyi / wao. The following shows the most basic and important categories of affixes. The passive verb, however, does explicitly allude to the existence of an agent, in contrast to the mediopassive below. Determiners in Swahili are capable of being used adjectivally (with a noun) or pronominally (standing in for an absent noun). All verbs of native Bantu origin end with -a, including the short verbs mentioned below. Sarufi ya Kiswahili cha Ngazi ya Kwanza na Kati -- By OSWALD ALMASI, MICHAEL DAVID FALLON, and NAZISH PARDHAN WARED -- This book is intended for University students who are interested in learning the Swahili language at the Introductory and After Tanganyika and Zanzibar unification in 1964, Taasisi ya Uchunguzi wa Kiswahili (TUKI, Institute of Swahili Research) was created from the Interterritorial Language Committee. The adjective -ingine "other", is sometimes given inflections prefixes of the type found with determiners, following a verbal rather than a nominal pattern. After the first World war, Britain took over German East Africa, where they found Swahili rooted in most areas, not just the coastal regions. In the inner regions of Tanzania, Swahili is spoken with an accent influenced by local languages and dialects, and as a first language for most people born in the cities, whilst being spoken as a second language in rural areas. These suffixes are the same as those which combine with na. Although it is not found in Standard Swahili today, there is a distinction between dental and alveolar consonants in some dialects, which is reflected in some orthographies, for example in كُٹَ‎ -kuta 'to meet' vs. كُتَ‎ -kut̠a 'to be satisfied'. * The form sisi "it is not us" is not frequently used as it is identical to the pronoun sisi "we", "us". The most common and productive causative suffix is -isha, which follows the same rules of vowel harmony as the applicative suffix. The prefix hu- is added to the beginning of the verb and short verbs do not need their -ku- extension. It is formed with the prefix -li-. Abstract nouns are often in class 14, loanwords in classes 9/10 and 5/6. This is outlined above. The word akawe in the above sentence could also be replaced with ili awe "in order that he be" or simply the subjunctive awe "that he be" (or "(for him) to be" in more natural contemporary English), but the -ka- added to this word emphasises his becoming an ambassador immediately following his being dispatched. According to Ellen Contini-Morava, vowels are never reduced, regardless of stress. [clarification needed]. Compare the following three examples. In many cases, more than one of these suffixes may be used to derive different verbs from a single verb, formed by various means. For example, the class 9/10 noun punda "donkey(s)" is followed by the class 4 noun milia "stripes" to mean "zebra". Till this day, Tanzanians carry a sense of pride when it comes to Swahili especially when it is used to unite over 120 tribes across Tanzania. Some examples of common verbs are kuanguka "to fall", kufanya "to do, to make", kuona "to see", kuwaza "to think", kusaidia "to help". Singulars only, from Steere's book (93 cards) 2013-08-16 . Other nouns can be made locative by adding the suffix -ni to the end, although this is not available for proper nouns referring to places, any animate nouns, recent loanwords and some other arbitrary nouns. In the following example, the ni could also be left out. In the present tense, however, there is a distinction made between a copular of essence versus a copula of state or location. Object concords are generally the same as the positive subject concord, although there are a few exceptions for instances involving animate referents; 2nd person singular and plural, as well as 3rd person singular (class 1) all have different forms for subject and object concord. In modern, standard Swahili, however, there is no great difference in meaning between these two forms as the "indefinite present" is more or less obsolete and rarely used other than its frequent appearance in media headlines. E is also commonly pronounced as mid-position after w. Polomé claims that /ɑ/ is pronounced as such only after w and is pronounced as [a] in other situations, especially after /j/ (y). Swahili (swahili: Kiswahili) er et bantusprog med vid udbredelse i Østafrika, især fra det sydlige Somalia til det nordlige Mozambique.Det er officielt sprog i Tanzania og nationalt sprog i Kenya.Swahili spiller en vigtig rolle som andetsprog i Østafrika. 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