When looking at the Missouri, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio regions, better known as the Havana Hopewell Region, as the settings for the Lands Northward and keeping that in mind while studying the Book of Mormon a new picture starts to form. Coriantumr lived the last few months of his life among a strange people, . Then, after a huge leap forward in time, two migrations took place that were almost contemporaneous. Many journeys suffered delays or outright failure because the guides became disoriented and could not decide which way to go. The proposed first landing near La Venta is in the Olmec heartland which can reasonably accommodate the Jaredite destruction narrative including a likely hill Ramah/Cumorah. No one in the Mulekite community had enough experience with Jaredite culture to translate Coriantumr's stela. (book). Think London on the Thames, Alexandria on the Nile and Shanghai on the Yangtze. The Jaredite final battles had a massive casualty count. Answer: No. The land southward was divided into the land north where Mulek landed and the land south where Lehi landed Helaman 6:10. by Nephi and other New World scribes. This correlation represents a convergence of several lines of reasoning: The Mediterranean Port City, Sidon, in Context, Philip Beale, British Banker Turned Explorer, Phoenicia, Working Phoenician Ship Replica, Phoenicia Circumnavigation of Africa 2009-2010, Proposed Mulekite Landfall, Settlement in Context, Columbus, Heyerdahl, and Phoenicia Expeditions, 93 Human Powered Voyages that Followed Transatlantic Ocean Currents, La Venta Stela 3 Excavated by Matthew Stirling in 1943, Bearded Foreigner Depicted on La Venta Monument 13, Photo by Linda Schele, Greek (Blue) and Phoenician (Red) Colonies ca. Combining different societies, just as the Nephites and Mulekites did, takes patience and humility. Monuments at La Venta dating to the Mulekite time period record the visit of foreign people whose beards and facial features would have been at home in ancient Jerusalem. The people of Zarahemla had come from the land of Jerusalem under the leadership of Mulek, the only surviving son of King Zedekiah. 586 BC and Mosiah I did not lead a group of Nephites from the city of Nephi to the lesser land of Zarahemla until ca. The Mulekites landed twice, once in the land northward near the place where the Jaredites were destroyed. Their histories were parallel in many ways. They lived on the margins of and somewhat isolated from the strong influence of the Jaredite culture core. Very little information is really given about the Mulekites, who, by descent, outnumbered the Nephites. The proposed first Mulekite landing near La Venta in the Olmec heartland could reasonably have been proximate to the massive destruction mentioned in, Some Book of Mormon modelers over the years have tried to correlate La Venta with the city of Mulek based on the likely Mulekite/Olmec interaction in the Olmec capital recorded on stone monuments such as Stela 3 and the Nephite cultural pattern of naming cities after their founder. For the most part, Nephite scribes are uninterested with the Mulekites… Now, after seeing the Nephites flee and be slain, Coriantumr became courageous in his heart and went out to march against the whole land, for he had the capital which was the stronghold of the land. Rian Nelson - January 17, 2021. So, in summary, the SNHAAPMT model which has passed a rigorous audit with a perfect score of 100% places the first Mulekite landfall at the mouth of the ancient Grijalva, modern Tonala river not far from La Venta. 425 BC) says they did. We are told very little about the Mulekites, whose journey may have … How did the Mulekites lose their language? Omni 1:22 his first parents came out from the … Former Nephites introduced writing to the Lamanites, , which fueled an immediate economic boom. Amaleki makes this perfectly clear that the Mulekites land in the area where Mosiah found them (Omni 1:16). The model predicts the second Mulekite landfall was at the mouth of the Usumacinta which led to settlement immediately upstream of the permanent wetlands. The Mulekites almost certainly did not abandon their ocean-going vessel(s) and portage their goods inland past the fall line on their river of choice. Using his record and the fragments given by others, we see that the Mulekites were essentially contemporary with the Lehites and appeared to have been in the promised land almost as long. . Ether's plates (historical records), together with the decayed remains from the final Jaredite battle were later found by a group of lost Nephites who were searching for the city of Zarahemla ( Mosiah 8:8-11 ). There is a good reason why the Mulekites would have stopped in Iowa, across from Nauvoo. Ca. 600 BC just as Greek historian Herodotus (ca. The northern group, called Mulekites in their land of Zarahemla, were separated from the Nephites by the mountain range in the wilderness strip which goes from sea to sea. Alma, in describing the city Bountiful, wrote that Bountiful was “so far northward that it came into the land which had been peopled and been destroyed …, which was discovered by the people of Zarahemla the Mulekites, it being the place of their first landing.” (Alma 22:30.) It is the first place up the Mississippi river from the Gulf Coast that, historically, was impassable for large ships, due to the Des Moines rapids located just south of there. By. Tabasco is in the northern tier of a viable land southward as the text requires and the Usumacinta area had wilderness characteristics when the Mulekites first arived. The Book of Mormon text specifically says they established their city in a wilderness, . Moroni invited the Lamanite army to "meet them upon the plains between the two cities" (Alma 52:20). Subsequent travel happened intermittently, but the routes were not yet well-established. Mosiah translates Coriantumr's record. Finally, the Mulekites show us that the Book of Mormon was written by real people with real social challenges. Coriantumr must have died among the Mulekites after this, because Ether’s prophetic curse (Ether 13:21) specified that Coriantumr “should only live to see…another people receiving the land for their inheritance; and…receive a burial by them”. Portland on the Columbia, Buenos Aires on the Plata, Seville on the Guadalquivir - the list could go on and on. People who had been on the trail recently and more or less knew the way still did a lot of wandering around, . , then coasting along the Gulf of Campeche. Their languages evolved to become so dissimilar that at initial contact they could not understand each other. All the indigenous people in the Western Hemisphere came from Israel at one time or another. Answer: The Mulekites did not establish Zarahemla among the Jaredites. https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCliMKFrhnpYVk4RrMudzrxw. 200 BC. The “Mulekites” (a term never used in the Book of Mormon) are barely mentioned in the Nephite record. Extract from Step by Step Through the Book of Mormon by Alan C. Miner, Copyright © 2021, Book of Mormon Archaeological Forum, The Jaredites & Mulekites were contemporaries for about 200 years until the Jaredite collapse. 600 BC. Answer: They had no relationship - zero communication for centuries. The contents of all BMAF publications are the sole responsibility of the individual authors and therefore do not necessarily represent the views of BMAF or The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Prior to Alma’s arrival in Zarahemla, the Nephite people in Zarahemla wearied Mosiah with requests to send an expedition to find out what became of the people of Zeniff, for they had heard nothing from them. The Mulekites crossed the ocean to the New World sometime after the Babylonians captured Jerusalem. It remained a mystery to them until Mosiah I come down to Zarahemla from Nephi with the interpreters which allowed him to read Coriantumr's inscription. The SNHAAPMT model correlates the city of Zarahemla with the ancient pre-classic site of Nueva Esperanza/Calatraba in northern Chiapas. Such behavior is simply atypical of first generation settlers arriving by sea. The Nephites taught the Mulekites their language and united to become one people, appointing Mosiah to be their king. . When the Mulekites discovered Coriantumr, he was not previously known to them, . The Route of the Mulekites We now turn our attention to another group of Jewish refugees who also made their way to America at about the same time as Lehi, the Mulekites. The Mulekites did not land in the Land Northward and did not know the Jaredites except for Coriantumr whom they did not understand his language nor his writing. Even less is known about their history or their journey to America. Has An Artifact That Relates to the Book of Mormon Been Found? Later a region was named for Zarahemla, a descendant of Mulek (Mosiah 25:2). “. With the River Sidon identified, we can go on to identify the location of the City and Land of Zarahemla. Desolation was located on the southern part of the land northward and bordered the same Nephite west sea. Known Phoenician settlement patterns in the Mediterranean during Mulekite times accommodate an initial landfall in Tabasco with a capital city on a large navigable river. The people of Zarahemla are thus often referred to as Mulekites. Where do ocean-going migrants typically locate first generation cities? The settlers traveled along the Gulf Coast of Mexico and eventually settled in the areas of Campeche and Chiapas on the southeast side of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. 0. The west sea land Bountiful bordered the west sea, extended northward from the narrow strip of wilderness, and was located south from and adjacent to Desolation. Given what we know of Phoenician settlement patterns in the Old World, we would expect them to favor a city site close to the seacoast at a good harbor or along a large river downstream from the fall line. Zoramites = Cherokee Mulekites = Algonquian Hagoth = Polynesians. Mosiah receives a record from the Mulekites - the account of Coriantumr and the Jaredite people, whom the Mulekites had discovered. They must have investigated the mouth of the Coatzacoalcos River and the mouth of the Mezcalapa-Grijalva which at that time ran where the Tonala River flows today. To substantiate this, theorists claim they, particularly the Mulekites, were brought by the Phoenicians--who had operated successfully in the Mediterranean, establishing a number of colonies along the northern coast of Africa, the most famous being Carthage an 814 BC colony of Tyre, situated on a hilly promontory overlooking the Mediterranean, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is … Movement by water is so much more energy efficient than overland cartage, that historic settlement patterns favor the area downstream from the head of navigation. Known historical examples of transatlantic ocean voyages made under circumstances similar to those the Mulekites would have encountered strongly suggest passage through the Canary Islands to the Caribbean. Upstream areas tend to remain "wilderness" for generations. The Lamanites "marched to the borders of the land Bountiful, driving the Nephites before them and slaying many" (Alma 51:28). Phoenicians could have sailed from the Old World to the Americas ca. When the Mulekites arrived in the Promised Land, the Jaredites constituted a high majority of the people. The social strife between these groups, often hinted at throughout the Book of Mormon, provides a warning for modern readers. The best Book of Mormon scholarship has the Mulekites landing first at the mouth of the Papaloapan River in southern Veracruz. and went with others to a place in the Western Hemisphere that they called the land of Mulek . The Jaredites (/ ˈ dʒ ær ə d aɪ t /) are one of four peoples (along with the Nephites, Lamanites, and Mulekites) that the Latter-day Saints believe settled in ancient America.. If La Venta stone carvings do not represent Mulekite/Olmec interaction, they show people with physical features similar to those we would expect in a Mulekite population visiting the Olmec capital at about the time the Mulekites arrived in the New World. They were discovered by Mosiah (Omni 1:14) several centuries after their arrival. PARALLELS: Mesoamerican and Ancient Middle Eastern Traditions, Decoding Ancient America: A Guide to the Archaeology of the Book of Mormon, Mesoamerica and the Book of Mormon, Is This the Place? ... Nephi, the son of Helaman, departs out of the land, and his son Nephi keeps the records. . The Mulekites did not migrate very far away from their original homeland in Zarahemla, . Mulek, a Book of Mormon character, son of Zedekiah, escaped the sack of Jerusalem (587 B.C.) Well, Israel, of course, silly! This is the famous La Venta Stela 3 dubbed the "Uncle Sam" stela which dates to 600 - 550 BC. Groups got lost as they traveled or attempted to travel between the two lands, . People even got lost trying to find their way back home, . Later on, it was hard enough to cross to separate the Nephites, who went north to join the Mulekites, from their Lamanite enemies to the south. The site is riverside west of the Usumacinta in the coastal plain upstream from the perennial flood zone and downstream from the fall line. Mulek is the last Nephite stronghold the Lamanites take before advancing on the land Bountiful (Alma 51:28). The Nephites sailed over in 600 BCE, the people of Zarahemla (aka the Mulekites) did likewise in 586 BCE, as did Corantumr's people (aka the Jaredites) at the time of the Tower of Babel. There was little or no regular communication, . 600 BC, the Phoenicians and the Greeks were in a major competition to settle the entire Mediterranean shoreline and establish trading colonies. Pacumeni seeing this did flee to the walls and Coriantumr pursued and slew him against the walls. and the land north was called Mulek, which was after the sons of Zedekiah; for the Lord did bring Mulek into the land north, . .” (1830 Book Of Mormon, Pgs. up to the Jaredite destruction, estimated to be between 400 B.C. This map shows Greek colonies in blue and Phoenician colonies in red. The Mulekites “At this time,” explained John W. Welch, “the land of Zarahemla had become a very diverse place because of several major demographic changes.”2 First, there had been the merger of the Nephites and the Mulekites two generations earlier (Omni 1:12–19). Nephite or Mulekite, Whos Culture Dominated? 550 BC, Proposed Zarahemla in the Coastal Plain Between Swamps and Mountains, Proposed Mulekite Landfall 60 Air Kilometers from Likely Ramah/Cumorah, Dozens of Known Archaeological Sites in the Olmec Heartland. Answer: The most likely place for the Mulekites to have founded their city was in a coastal plain, on the navigable portion of a major river, upstream from the seasonal floods in the delta but not beyond the head of navigation at the fall line. The Usumacinta in Tabasco and northern Chiapas is such a setting. Several lines of reasoning about the Mulekite ocean voyage across the Atlantic point to Tabasco, Mexico, as likely landing locations. When Mosiah was commanded by the Lord to leave the land of Nephi he and his group traveled in the wilderness, being led by the Lord, until they found the land of Zarahema. This turns out to be no small task, because the term Lamanite is used in several different senses in the scriptures to describe a particular racial lineage, a political/religious group, a covenant people, etc.. . Tracks became impossible to follow after only a few days, . 22. This underscores the fact that all three groups were located in geographically separate areas, the Jaredites in the land northward (v. 22), the Nephites to the south in the land of Nephi, and the Mulekites in the middle. This would make the journey from the land of Nephi to the land of the Mulekites a total of twenty days. 11 And again, they have brought swords, the hilts thereof have perished, and the blades thereof were cankered with rust; and there is no one in the land that is able to interpret the language or the engravings that are on the plates. The Mulekites, however, are clearly indicated in the Book of Mormon to have first landed on the east coast of the “Land Northward” part of its area (quite surely the Gulf Coast portion of the ancient high-culture area known as Mesoamerica). We may surmise that because the Lamanites and robbers occupied the Western Seashore, the Mulekites would have avoided them and ventured inland, no doubt following the Buffalo River as they went. The Caribbean is an overwhelmingly likely landing place for any ancient voyage passing through the Straits of Gibraltar and the Canary Islands on its way to the Americas. Ancient iconography at La Venta strongly supports the idea of foreign visitors about the time the Mulekites would have landed. Answer: Travel was very difficult and unpredictable. Coriantumr was later discovered by the people of Zarahemla (Mulekites), with whom he lived for "nine moons" . 484 BC - ca. First were the Jaredites, who left their homeland after the scattering at the Tower of Babel. 422-423, The Book of Helaman, Chapter II) The Mulekites landed in the area where the Jaredites lived … Share on Facebook. This of course required a route across the Atlantic Ocean, not the Pacific. So, any name La Venta carried in Book of Mormon times is much more likely to have been Jaredite or Mulekite than Nephite. The land southward was divided into the land north where Mulek landed and the land south where Lehi landed, Tabasco is in the northern portion of what many consider the land southward, which fits. Think Boston on the Charles, New York on the Hudson, Philadelphia on the Delaware and Augusta on the Savannah. To produce a map that shows where the Lamanites of the world are located today, the mapmaker must first decide exactly what a Lamanite is. Most serious Book of Mormon geographers consider the Mexican states of Tabasco and Chiapas to be part of the … Amaleki wrote more about the Mulekites than any other Book of Mormon author. The Mulekites arrived in the New World ca. The Mulekites, or at least a branch of the Mulekites, may have lived among the Jaredites from the Mulekites' arrival in the New World in the sixth century B.C. and 250 B.C. As Itzhak Perlman is to Violonists, the Book of Mo... Phoenicians could have circumnavigated Africa ca. The wicked plan to slay the righteous if Samuel’s signs are not given. Communication was almost non-existent. Venta carried in Book of Mormon been found later a region was named for Zarahemla, place where Jaredites... Second Mulekite landfall was at the mouth of the Jaredite final battles had a massive casualty count the only son... Hagoth = Polynesians Mulekites show us that the Book of Mormon scholarship has Mulekites. 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