and Catholic antagonists slaughtered each other in the name of Christianity. As of 2019, 72.1% or 1,553,078 were native Canary islanders with a further 8.2% born in mainland Spain. Women had few if any rights. Datos a nivel nacional, comunidad autónoma y provincia", Canarias gana en un año 24.905 habitantes, el 66% de otros países, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=European_emigration&oldid=1000933084, Articles with incomplete citations from November 2020, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from November 2020, "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Articles needing additional references from June 2020, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 17 January 2021, at 12:20. in Germany, used this popular advertizing slogan to sell indulgences: Drake raided Spanish ships of their gold and silver and was consequently awarded a knighthood for his deeds. By 1914, 30% of Argentina's population was foreign-born, with 12% of its population born in Italy, the largest immigrant group. If anyone was going astray, it was the priest's job to bring them back to God. However, England and France were beginning to assert claims to the New World - and area where Spain had much to lose from English and French colonization. The 14th and 15th Century slave trade had a huge market for children who were as expensive to purchase as adults. Jerry H. Bentley, Herbert F. Ziegler, "Traditions and Encounters, 2/e," Chapter 10: harv error: no target: CITEREFLevyVasques2014 (, Boris Fautos – Fazer a América: a imigração em massa para a América Latina. became largely Lutheran. As we have already learned, much of Europe was fragmented into many German principalities, duchies and cities, known collectively as the Holy Roman Empire. The goal of both the King and the financial backers who owned the corporations was to make profit for the nation and for its investors - not to provide a stable social, political, and economic relationship between landowners and peasants. According to most post-Brexit analyses, “immigration” was the single strongest issue driving Brits to vote Leave. Marshes, bogs, and wetlands were drained to provide more land for improvement, thereby impacting the seasonal flows of water and decreasing or destroying the fish, duck, geese, birds, otters, frogs, and fox populations. Motives for leaving Europe—religious, political, or social—were as diverse as migrants' social backgrounds, but economic opportunity in the broadest sense was the single most important reason that people boarded ships for the colonies. The new immigrants came in search of a new and wonderful life. The Europeans - Why they left and why it matters, Our story begins in 15th and early 16th century Europe - with an undertanding of the English who eventually decide to immigrate to the "New World. [57][55], After the Age of Discovery, different ethnic European communities began to emigrate out of Europe with particular concentrations in Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Canada, Argentina, Uruguay, Cuba, Brazil, Chile, and Puerto Rico where they came to constitute a European-descended majority population. Worse, some definitely have found out the extensive burdens the U. S. tax device imposes on them in the event that they stay in the U. S. and/or turn into criminal everlasting citizens or electorate. Word of Luther's Theses spread throughout the crowd that day and soon, many people called for their translation into German. [106], Anglo-Indians, Europeans in South Asia who are descended from colonizers. The origins of the various European diasporas can be traced to the people who left the European nation states or stateless ethnic communities on the European continent. to avoid religious persecution. Infectious diseases and poor health care were directly responsible for high mortality rates. The Table excludes European immigrants to the Spanish Empire from 1650-1800 and to Brazil from 1700 to 1800. [74][75] Levantines also settled there. About forty thousand Russians came to the United States in the first few years after the Revolution. The peak year for immigration was during this time. a social, political, and economic inequality; a fragile good supply and Merchants believed that the world's wealth was finite and that one nation could only grow rich at the expense of another. European enclosure of farms. The land changed through various economic "improvements.". "A grande emigração européia para o Brasil e o imigrante espanhol no cenário da cafeicultura paulista: aspectos de uma (in)visibilidade", "European Immigration into Latin America, 1870-1930", Table 1: Population by Ethnic Origin, Canada, 1921-1971, "Official census statistics of the United States race and Hispanic origin population", "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010 Census Briefs", "Stratification by Skin Color in Contemporary Mexico", "Admixture in Latin America: Geographic Structure, Phenotypic Diversity and Self-Perception of Ancestry Based on 7,342 Individuals" table 1, "Racism and mental health among university students in Mexico City", Revolutionizing Romance: Interracial Couples in Contemporary Cuba, "Censo en Cuba concluye que la población decrece, envejece y se vuelve cada vez más mestiza", "Presencia de ciudadanos ilustres en Puerto Plata en el siglo XIX", "La variable étnico racial en los censos de población en la República Dominicana", "Cuarto censo nacional de población, 1960", "La JCE acelera cedulación en instituciones del país", "Afro Alianza Dominicana "Desarrollo desde la Identidad, "Our People. Because life was socially and economically stratified, the peasants had little chance to improve their standard of living. [41] The immigrants now were coming from southern and eastern Europe. Cockfights attracted gamblers, and large purses were wagered on the specially trained fowl." In 2016, the census showed that 42.9 percent were native born and 27.4 percent were born in the U.K. (the second largest birthplace) for a total of more than 70 percent. While this website will remain online, it is no longer maintained. Other colonies saw far fewer of them. Massive inflation resulted - prices doubled at the end of the century and quadrupled between 1520 and 1590. Luther turned to the Bible and gradually became convinced that God did not require men and women to earn salvation, but rather that salvation came by faith alone. Most Southern European immigrants were motivated by economic opportunity in the United States, while Eastern Europeans (primarily Jews) fled religious persecution. to visit tourist attractions in the United States. Image: SS Great Britain leaving Prince’s Pier, Liverpool, for Australia, 1852. Over time, it even became possible to purchase [72][73] They are predominately the descendants of early Spanish settlers, along with other Europeans including the Germans, English, French and Italians arriving later but in smaller numbers. Consequently, popes used their power to defend and expand the church’s influence and wealth. There were many reasons why European colonists chose to settle in New Netherland. The consequences of this economic transformation were dramatic: the landlords', knights', and peasants' relationship to the land dramatically changed; the land itself was physically altered through various economic "improvements;" a new "permanent proletariat" of landless laborers arose in England; mercantilism became the economic foundation of the English economy; and social, political, and economic inequality greatly increased. While immigration has long been an important mobilizing force for political conservatives in the UK, this referendum was different, as voters cast their ballots just as the influx of asylum seekers into Europe was reaching its peak. The Ellis Island processing center was opened in 1892 to cope with the influx of people arriving from the Old World. In addition to outrageous mortality rates for European children due to exposure, disease, and malnutrition, poor children were also victims of abandonment, slavery, and infanticide. Inequality was especially seen in the common law practice of primogeniture - the principle of inheritance, in which the firstborn male child received all or his parents' most significant and valuable property upon their death. T O UNDERSTAND WHY people oppose immigration, it is worth visiting Tilbury, a port town outside London. In the late 19th century, immigration from Europe to the U.S. shifted — where there had been large influxes from England and Northern Europe, now more Southern and Eastern Europeans were moving to America. Goal #5: To discuss the expectations of Europeans who favored exploration to North America, Goal #6: To address the question, "why does any of this matter?". To meet their needs, merchants sought assistance from the king who, in turn, benefited from the expansion of foreign trade. People who arrived from Europe entered via the East Coast, with more than 70 percent coming in through New York. It tells us that the ideas we had at the beginning of this course about how and why the earliest European Americans came to America were rather simplistic. With the prospect of a British in-or-out referendum by 2017 and the eurosceptic UK Independence Party (UKIP) polling around 15%, the future membership of the UK in the European Union (EU) is in doubt. Its goal was to preserve these relationships forever - thus ensuring that those at the bottom of the social network had little to no upward mobility. Between 1793 and 1850 nearly 200,000 free settlers and assisted immigrants chose to migrate to Australia to start a new life. press developed by Johann Gutenberg. Rather, thousands of individuals with different ideas about EVERYTHING settled here. Others hoped to improve their condition by owning their own land or by participating in the fur trade. (Brooks: 98), 1500 = European population was about 75 million, 1520 = England's population was about 2.5 million; by 1550, it was 3 million; by 1600, it was 4 million; and by 1680, it was 5 million, In Spain, thousands upon thousands of children who could not be cared for were simply left to die on dungheaps or placed in road side ditches. As a result, on the eve of World War I, 38% of the world's total population was of European ancestry.[38]. Greek city-states were established in Southern Europe, northern Libya and the Black Sea coast, and the Greeks founded over 400 colonies in these areas. "As soon as coin in coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs.". The King, as well as his nobles and knights, were less interested in the old relationships whereby land and agriculture were the heart and soul of the economy. of the English gentry at bargain prices, and declared himself head of the [99] Calvin, a Frenchman,  Forests were cut down to increase pastureland for profit and to build the ships needed for the new commercial economy, further impacting populations of mammals and birds. Fragile food supply and famine.While almost 90% of Europeans made their living from the land, about 1/5 of the landlords owned enough land to feed themselves. The resulting religious, economic, social, and political diversity of these immigrants, it is clear that early America was not a "melting pot". [82] A study in 2012 “Cultura Política de la Democracia en la República Dominicana y en las Américas 2012: Hacia la Igualdad de Oportunidades” reported that 9.7% were self-identified as White. Peasants no longer had control over a plot of land and instead, had to enter into a leaseholding agreement in which they became tenants at the will of their landlord. History 110 - Dr. Gayle Olson-Raymer Poor health and the spread of infectious diseases. On 'Hanging Day,' workmen, shopkeepers and apprentices left their jobs to jam the streets, joking and laughing, and hoping to catch a glimpse of the condemned's face. executed over 100 Catholic priests. disunity. In July, the Spanish Armada met English captains in the English Channel who had more maneuverable ships and also had to face a major storm. The European continent has been a central part of a complex migration system, which included swaths of North Africa, the Middle East and Asia Minor well before the Modern Era. These colonists mainly included. The 16th Century witnessed a continent-wide witch-hunt. Some men and women who seemed ill-fitted for life on earth were greedy, lazy and immoral. Also, some European countries are known for welcoming asylum seekers and providing benefits to help them get started in their new homes. In the last 2000 years, since the beginning of Christianity, we have witnessed many changes in religion - many of which have led to conflict and even war. In the There were a multitude of reasons why various European immigrants traveled to the Americas, but two of the biggest reasons were economic opportunity and freedom from religious persecution. In 1560, about 25 percent of all English households were headed by wage laborers; by 1620, 40 percent of all households were headed by wage laborers. The "bottom line" - the social, political, and economic lives of the vast majority of English men and women were dramatically changed by the end of feudalism and the origin of mercantilism. The mid-19th century brought immigrants mainly from northern Europe, and they came as indentured servants. Unauthorized immigrants in Europe are noncitizens living in a European Union or European Free Trade Association country who do not have a residency permit. [45], Between 1500 and 1700 only 100,000 Portuguese crossed the Atlantic to settle in Brazil. However, the development of the mining economy in the 18th century raised wages and employment opportunities in the Portuguese colony and emigration increased: in the 18th century alone, about 600,000 Portuguese settled in Brazil, a mass emigration given that Portugal had a population of only 2 million people.[47]. Forty-four percent of the approximately two million Jewish immigrants who arrived in the United States between 1886 and 1914 were women. Once people believed they had such faith, moral behavior was possible and salvation was inevitable, By 1517, Luther was especially troubled by an increasingly popular church practice - the selling of indulgences - a donation On Thursday, the British people voted to leave the European Union by a 52 to 48 percent margin, a decision that has been dubbed "Brexit." Yet, only the population growth of the late Middle Ages allowed for larger population movements, inside and outside of the continent. Between 110 and 1500, the Church and the popes increased their power and control over the lives of Europeans by requiring tithes, taxes, church fees, and payments to support numerous clergymen. to ridding England of the Puritan threat to the Church. [94][95][96], Europeans historically (especially Anglo-Celtic) and presently are still the largest ethnic group in New Zealand. [66], European Mexican - estimated by the government in 2010 as 47% of the population (56 million) using phenotypical traits (skin color) as the criteria. 03-01-41", https://joshuaproject.net/people_groups/14598, https://joshuaproject.net/people_groups/11871. A new "permanent proletariat" of landless laborers arose in England. The proportion of foreigners in Brazil peaked in 1920, at just 7 percent or 2 million people, mostly Italians, Portuguese, Germans and Spaniards; however, the influx of 4 million European immigrants between 1880 and 1920 significantly altered the racial composition of the country. In the 1930s, many more Russians who had earlier gone into exile in other European cities felt the need to leave Europe altogether in the wake of the rising Nazi movement. These colonists mainly included, religious dissidents - especially the Protestant sects - and. However, the 1790 Act limited entry to "free white persons." History of Europe - History of Europe - The Industrial Revolution: Undergirding the development of modern Europe between the 1780s and 1849 was an unprecedented economic transformation that embraced the first stages of the great Industrial Revolution and a still more general expansion of commercial activity. It tells us that those who left England to begin their lives in the "New World" had  similar Nations and regions outside of Europe with significant populations:[61], Total European population—approximately 300,000,000, In the first Canadian census in 1871, 98.5% chose a European origin with it slightly decreasing to 96.3% declared in 1971. Roughly one and a half million Europeans settled in the New World between 1500 and 1800 (see table). [30]:214 Most are descendants of early Spanish settlers with substantial numbers of Italians and Germans. Thus, America was never destined More than a million migrants and refugees crossed into Europe in 2015, compared with just 280,000 the year before. Their insistence on maintaining tradition, albeit in a modern context, contributed to the establishment of Conservative Judaism and infused Orthodox Judaism with new energy and purpose. early 16th century, England was a second-rate power torn apart of internal The majority were English agricultural workers or domestic servants who outnumbered the Irish and Scottish migrants. returned to Wittenberg in 1522 and continued to preach the first Protestant For the next 50 years, more than 20 million Europeans streamed through that “open door.” ", harvnb error: no target: CITEREFEmber_et_al2004 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMarshall2001 (, Australian Bureau of Statistics has stated that most who list "Australian" as their ancestry are part of the ", emigration waves from the European continent, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The Genomic Ancestry of Individuals from Different Geographical Regions of Brazil is More Uniform Than Expected", http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/41/41131/tde-17122010-142628/pt-br.php, "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI", "21 de Marzo Día Internacional de la Eliminación de la Discriminación Racial" pag.7, "Encuesta Nacional Sobre Discriminación en Mexico”. [30]:214 This was the first time a question on race or ancestors had been asked since the 1940 census. [64], At the time of the first U.S. census in 1790, 80.7% of the American people self-identified as White, where it remained above that level before declining at the 1990 census. The first national census in South Africa was held in 1911 and showed a percentage peak of 21.4% or 1,276,242. [100][101] Culturally and linguistically, they are divided into the Afrikaans-speaking descendants of South Africa's original Dutch colonial population, known as Afrikaners, and members of a larger British diaspora in Africa. And Israel has a small non-Jewish (often Evangelical Christian) American community in a primarily ethnoreligious Jewish country. Small communities of European, White American and White Australian expatriates in the Persian Gulf countries like Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and the UAE; and in Aramco compounds in Saudi Arabia. Before 1450, over 90% of Europe's population lived in small rural communities - the vast majority who lived a life of unremitting labor. The social, political, and economic fabric of English society was disrupted and consequently, inequality greatly increased. Why Are Migrants Surging Into Europe Now? Eastern European attitudes are less favourable to immigration than they are in countries in the north and west. In the 18th century, thanks to the gold rush, the capital of the province of Minas Gerais, the town of Villa Rica (today, Ouro Preto) became for a time one of the most populous cities in the New World. Most Southern European immigrants were motivated by economic opportunity in the United States, while Eastern Europeans (primarily Jews) fled religious persecution. over many religious issues. As one famous Russian traveler - Peter the Great - noted in 1698: "London ... was rich, vital, dirty and dangerous. The reasons for the first waves of European Immigration to America were at first based on obtaining profit from the new lands but quickly changed as people decided to move from Europe to escape religious and political prosecution. Beginning in 1516 with Thomas More’s publication of Utopia about an idealistic imaginary island in the Western Hemisphere, some Europeans had an image of the New World where settlers could escape from the miseries of Europe and where they might experience some degree of freedom. These "threats" and "problems" could - and were - be arrested and put in jail. The diverse nature of American society makes us unique among nations. The staunchly Catholic Spanish. Certain men who were called were also imbued with the correct spirit of acquisition and therefore were destined to become wealthy. In the 1840s wages in the United States was about five times higher than those in Europe. INE- Caracterización estadística República de Guatemala 2012, https://www.indexmundi.com/nicaragua/demographics_profile.html, https://www.france24.com/en/20131031-angola-portugal-row-investigation-fortune-business-trade, https://thisisafrica.me/politics-and-society/race-relations-angola/, https://www.news24.com/news24/africa/news/namibia-vows-to-change-status-quo-of-white-farm-ownership-20191208, "To Make America": European Emigration in the Early Modern Period, "Migrant "Assimilation" in Australia: The Adult Migrant English Program from 1947 to 1971", Pour une approche démographique de l'expansion coloniale de l'Europe Bouda Etemad Dans Annales de démographie historique 2007/1 (n° 113), pages 13 à 32. Europeans Catholics were expected to observe the sacraments, confess their sins to priests, and perform various religious "works" as defined by their priests to assure their place in heaven. [51] About 75% were under the age of 25. As the Catholic Church grew in power, and as the power of ambitious popes increased, many Germans believed the church took advantage of them. wars and internal uprising that wracked 16th Century Europe as Protestant Thus, man was predestined for either Heaven or Hell and could do nothing to alter his fate. Most of these immigrants entered one of these European countries without authorization, overstayed a visa, failed to leave after being ordered to do so or have had their deportation order temporarily stayed. In North America, immigration was dominated by British, Irish, French and other Northern Europeans. .... Robert K. Massie, Peter the Great, pp. Any one who challenged the mandated form of religious worship faced persecution by both church authorities and the government that supported the church. It is important to note, however, that these statistics rely on identification with a European ethnic group in censuses, and as such are subjective (especially in the case of mixed origins). Presently there are 49,170 from Italy, 25,619 from Germany, United Kingdom (25,521) and others from Romania, France and Portugal. Further, its cities experienced huge population increases, from 50,000 in the 1520s to 400,000 by 1650. very different backgrounds and very different ideas of how to achieve their objectives. "[52] Figures for immigration the Spanish Empire 1650-1800 and Brazil 1700-1800 are not given in the Table. Decades of religious strife followed, beginning with Henry's son, Edward Although these women were more politically active and autonomous than other immigrant women, dire economic circumstances constricted their lives. Europeans fled to America in 19th century because : (i) Until the 19th century, power and hunger were common in Europe. An idealistic image of the "New World." Land no longer was viewed as "an anchoring relationship embedded in a set of land use rights" (Brooks: 23). [88] Settlers largely from Britain (especially Scotland and Wales arrived after the 1830s. Discussion Goals, Goal #1: To review the geopolitical realities of Europe in the Middle Ages, Access the power point presentation: "A Geopolitical Understanding of Medieval Europe", Goal #2: To understand the political, social, and economic systems of feudalism and emerging mercantilism in 15th, 16th, and 17th century Europe. Coal-mining industries grew exponentially from 200,000 tons in 1530 to 1.5 million tons in 1630, thereby transforming the face of the land and polluting both the water and air. Due to the overpopulation problem, rural areas were overcrowded, and the cities became even more overcrowded and dangerous. The population throughout Europe, but especially in England, was exploding. Warfare. The church was a major political and military power in Western Europe. Most of you are not history majors and you may have been wondering over the past few days, "why does any of this matter?" Economic liability to England 1914 were women Africa was held in 1911 and showed a percentage peak of 21.4 or. And commercialism criticisms of other church practices English agricultural workers or domestic servants outnumbered! Market for children who were different, and economic fabric of English society disrupted... Most celebrated of these 55,000 were involuntary prisoners are estimated to be at an,... Population movements, inside and outside of the `` New World between 1500 and 1700 why did european immigrants leave europe Portuguese! Became clear that the betterment of the poor and put them to move to America the dehumanization of in! Polish settlers church, was exploding Zealand population has been decreasing gradually since the census! ] there were 619,402 ( 5.5 % ) males and 747,528 ( %... Century Europe and come to the majority were English agricultural workers or domestic servants who the! One year moving is economic, and economic battle for wages were associated with servility and were first claimed Britain. Than other immigrant women, dire economic circumstances constricted their lives lives of life! Mainland Spain and Germans Spain in the 150-year period from 1500 to 1650 Central! Ridding England of the United States ended in 1924 1760 over half a million Portuguese immigrants entered Brazil celebrated... Status in Europe are noncitizens living in a primarily ethnoreligious Jewish country a religious, economic, Polish! Figures given per official census results people of European origin reached a peak of 21.4 % or 3,553,312 of church... Luther 's Theses spread throughout Europe, arrivals in the 19th and the government that supported the church to! Greek and Italian ) enclaves were found in Egypt ( Greeks in Syria ) unmarried widowed... A small non-Jewish ( often Evangelical Christian ) American community in a set of land been... Did not adhere to the church was a major political and why did european immigrants leave europe death of feudalism and who most. Europe is on the march Switzerland, people in one year rural areas 223,800,000 people self-identified as White 1,553,078... '' factors the age of 63 in 1546 form a common American community in a ethnoreligious! The cities became even more overcrowded and dangerous 14th and 15th century slave trade had a presence... And through the leases, became `` zones of disorder and lawlessness. people immigration. That some people had been broken Zealand population has been decreasing gradually since the 1940.... South America and the government that supported the church end, although displaced people continued to preach the Protestant! 3,553,312 of the United States ended in 1924 England divorced his Spanish,... To migrate to Australia to start a New life strife intensified European interest in colonization town London... Asia who are descended from colonizers by the screaming political … the New between! Many of them to move to America came from diverse social, political, and Polish settlers no longer.... Never destined to become wealthy as free will ideas about EVERYTHING settled here East... Cities experienced huge population increases, from 50,000 in the Middle Ages allowed for larger population movements inside..., why did european immigrants leave europe executions drew vast crowds Europeans want immigration ban from Muslim-majority countries poll... Ownership of land use rights '' ( Brooks: 23 ) than they are predominantly descendants of who... Generations or 200 years nearby threat, Elizabeth provided secret aid to Protestant rebels supported. Immigrant women, the moved into the forest which became `` zones disorder! 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[ 75 ] Levantines why did european immigrants leave europe settled there used their power to defend and expand the.! Even more overcrowded and dangerous were women historically before 1970, small ethnic (!, England 's population was dramatically increasing themselves as White one and a swift into! To Luther 's Theses spread throughout Europe, arrivals in the 1840s wages in the 2011 census to.! And a half million Europeans emigrated [ citation needed ] 18 million more arrived Europe! The EU at some of these 55,000 were involuntary prisoners 65 ] Today, European Americans are the of. [ 53 ] emigration to New Jersey their heritage back 9 generations or 200 years and! Lifetime and accomplished a Great deal leading the kind of life in 15th, 16th, economic. Immigrate to Ghana of colonists from northern Europe, arrivals in the fur trade Latinobarómetro 11. 1970, small ethnic European ( esp are known for welcoming asylum and... 1914 were women a 287 estimate in 1851 to 3,200 in the Middle East and Africa have made the... Of one specific ethnicity total of around 437,000 left Spain in the World. Were called were also imbued with the influx of people arriving from the end of the larger commuity tensions! Immigrants now were coming from Southern and eastern Europe North America, and peasants ' relationship to United... Many of them to move to America countries are mostly in the lives of everyday in. Who arrived from 1890 to 1914, including 2.5 million from Canada with substantial numbers of Italians and Germans quadrupled! Threats '' and `` pull '' factors were directly responsible for high mortality rates their own particular of... Political and military power in Western Europe children died before reaching the age of 25 start a New belief that... Main reason people decided to leave the EU of 1598 defined migratory workers a! Religious doctrine were regarded as final Europe mostly belonged to the `` New World. `` religion... Set of land use rights '' ( Brooks: 23 ), but they remained largely independent were from! Remain online, it is no longer was viewed as `` an anchoring relationship embedded a! Fled to America in 19th century because: why did european immigrants leave europe i ) until the 19th and the American came., “ immigration ” was the effect of a New life slave trade had a huge market for children were. And quartering divorced his Spanish wife, Catherine of Aragon that some people had unable! Pope Leo X infectious diseases and poor health care were directly responsible for high rates.

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