(1984). Tick marks indicate minutes. Relocation based on published arrival times shows that Event III took place up-dip of the main shock. The vertical static displacement from the earthquake grows to a maximum of 3.2 m (Fig. Castro R. 3 regroups our results for all three events. Also, Fig. Event I on 1932 June 3 resulted in severe destruction in Manzanillo and adjoining areas with upwards of 400 casualties. Following the work of Newman & Okal (1998), itself based on Boatwright & Choy (1986), we seek to obtain slowness parameters Θ = log10(EE/M0) for Events I, II and III. Dixon T. (1985) suggested the existence of a Colima seismic gap, which was filled during the later Tecoman earthquake of 2003 January 22 (Yagi et al. EPA-EFE/JORGE NUÑEZ Emergency Services workers inspect the debris of a … In this respect, it is most reminiscent of the sequences of 1963 October and 1973-1975, both in the Kuril Islands. 9 for preferred Model 22.4, featuring rupture in a weaker material. The locked zone at this plate interface ruptured in two stages in June 1932. 2011). Among the 29 earthquakes listed on Table 1, we earmark with a a eight events which have generally better locations, as evidenced by smaller confidence ellipses. On the other hand, among the three sequences of Kuril-type tsunami earthquakes, the most variable parameter is the time delay between the main shock and the ‘tsunami earthquake’: 7 d in the 1963 episode, 19 d in 1932 but nearly 2 years in 1973-1975. Bull′s eye symbols denote ‘tsunami earthquakes’, all featuring Θ =-5.8 (N: Nicaragua, 1992; J: Java, 1994 and 2006; M: Mentawai, 2010; K: Kuril, 1963 and 1975; C: Chimbote, Peru, 1996; T: Tonga, 1982; A46: Aleutian, 1946; S04: Sumatra, 2004; for the latter, both the CMT and normal mode moments are shown). The US Geological Survey reported the earthquake's magnitude as 8.1, making it the biggest earthquake in Mexico since 1932 We note that both GR′s and EV′s locations fall within our Monte Carlo confidence ellipse. Unfortunately, we faced a number of challenges due to the date of the events (predating, e.g. These authors used Richter′s (1958) algorithm based on the variation of P-wave residuals with azimuth to derive their own relocation, shown as the square on Fig. the development of H. Benioff′s broad-band ‘1-90’ seismometers), the significant difference in size between Events I and III (which can preclude a direct comparison, with Event III hardly emerging from the noise on Wiechert seismograms), and other unfortunate occurrences (the records being changed or the presence of obvious non-linearities). The relocated epicentre of Event I, at 19.65°N, 104.00°W, is compared on Fig. However, we emphasize the trend, common to all solutions, in the relative locations of Events III and I. In the case of most aftershocks, we used a constrained depth of 25 km, as suggested in the scenario of a large interplate thrust event. You could not be signed in. All this evidence strongly suggests that Event III occurred about 50 km seawards of the main shock, in a geometry which would be compatible with rupturing either at the very top of the interplate contact, or along a splay fault located in an accretionary wedge inside the North American Plate. Its relationship to the main shock fits Fukao′s (1979) model and is particularly reminiscent of that of the Kuril duo on 1963 October 13 and 20. For example, during the 1992 Nicaragua event (mb= 5.3; Ms= 7.2), the earthquake was not felt in some coastal communities, whose unprepared population was washed away 40 min later, at a cost of 170 casualties (Satake et al. A Ms = 8.2 earthquake on 3 June and its aftershocks of 18 June (Ms = 7.8) were followed by another large (Ms = 6.9) aftershock on 22 June This scenario, which requires a sedimentary input into the subduction zone, could apply to the 2010 Mentawai aftershock of the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake (Newman et al. There is a slight growth of moment with period due to the effect of source finiteness at higher frequencies (Ben-Menahem 1961) with an average value of 2.4 × 1028 dyn cm beyond 150 σ that we propose as the static value of M0 for Event I. 6(a) and a close-up of the wave heights in Manzanillo and its vicinity on Fig. Lee W.H.K. Please click on the PDF icon to access. Rodríguez M. Synolakis C.E. earthquakes today - recent and latest earthquakes, earthquake map and earthquake information. Villaseñor A. We conclude that Fukao′s (1979) model involving rupture along a splay fault satisfactorily explains the available data. We are grateful to Ota Kulhánek, James Dewey, Brian Mitchell and Bernard Dost for access to historical seismograms. The paper was significantly improved by the comments of two anonymous reviewers. This scenario would apply in Nicaragua and Java (Polet & Kanamori 2000). Okal E.A. Same as Fig. Earthquake information for europe. 11, but differs from Figs 6-10. A gap of about 60 km remains between the aftershock areas of the 1932 Jalisco and the 1973 Colima earthquakes whose seismic potential is unknown. For Event III, we assume a steeper dip, representative of faulting along a splay fault in the accretionary wedge that will be our preferred model. The 1932 Changma earthquake occurred at 10:04:27 local time on 25 December. All our results then fit the model for ‘tsunami earthquake’ aftershocks proposed for the Kuril Islands by Fukao in 1979. 7 shows that the simulated tsunami amplitude falls to 1.5 m in Manzanillo, substantially lower than observed. Qiang Q. Notwithstanding this reservation, Fig. As shown on Fig. Another mechanism for the generation of exceptionally large tsunamis after earthquakes is the triggering of submarine landslides. 9 for Model 22.2, featuring a steeper fault dip. Wei Y. It resulted in considerable destruction in the city of Manzanillo and generated a locally damaging tsunami. Kisslinger C. Espíndola J.M. Relocation of Events I (red), II (blue) and III (green). Synolakis C.E. The present computations use three nested grids, the coarsest one covering a total area of 330 000 km2 and the finest one, shown on Figs 6-11, featuring a sampling of 0.1 nautical mile (0.185 km). Large-scale induced polarization imaging, The interaction between mantle plumes and lithosphere and its surface expressions: 3-D numerical modelling, Middle–Late Permian magnetostratigraphy and the onset of the Illawarra Reversals in the northeastern Parana Basin, South America, Double-difference seismic attenuation tomography method and its application to The Geysers geothermal field, California, PRISM3D – A three-dimensional reference seismic model for Iberia and adjacent areas, Volume 225, Issue 1, April 2021 (In Progress), Volume 224, Issue 3, March 2021 (In Progress), Geomagnetism, Rock Magnetism and Palaeomagnetism, Marine Geosciences and Applied Geophysics, 2 Historical reports and previous studies, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05199.x, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2021 The Royal Astronomical Society. Link to Wikipedia biography Same as Fig. Based on the work of Boatwright & Choy (1986), Newman & Okal (1998) have proposed a modern rendition of the mb:Ms discriminant, in the form of the parameter Θ = log10(EE/M0), where EE is the seismic energy radiated into the body waves, estimated without knowledge of focal mechanism and exact depth, and M0 the seismic moment. The central dashed line and shaded area are the average value and 2s confidence interval, respectively. (c) Run-up along coastline, plotted as a function of longitude. Silver E.A. (1928). According to Mexico’s National Seismological Service, three of those happened within a nerve-wracking nine-month span in 1902-1903. 6 for Event III (Model 22.1). ‘Tsunami earthquakes’ have parameters T typically 1-1.5 logarithmic units below the theoretical value (-4.90) expected from the application of seismic scaling laws. (a) and (b) Same as Fig. Event III is a typical ‘tsunami earthquake’, with a slowness parameter Θ =-6.18, more than one logarithmic unit less than predicted by scaling laws. Bilek S.L. We emphasize that, because Ebeling & Okal′s (2007) regional distance corrections were derived empirically in the absence of a rigorous theoretical framework, these values remain tentative in an absolute sense; however, because the epicentral distance is essentially the same for all three earthquakes, the relative values for the three events are robust. The effects of Events I, II and III and especially of their tsunamis are summarized, for example, by Sánchez & Farreras (1993), based primarily on Mexican newspaper accounts. The parameters L= 150 km, W= 75 km and Δu = 4.5 m are derived from scaling laws (Geller 1976). Hayes G. The 1985 earthquake hit near the capital Mexico City, killing thousands and injuring many more. 12(b) shows inundation of the land spit separating the ocean from the Cuyutlán lagoons, in accordance with the description reported in local newspapers (El Excelsior 1932) and summarized by Sánchez & Farreras (1993). This estimate is half the 280 km proposed by Singh et al. As mentioned by Eissler & McNally (1984), Event I′s entry is missing from the collection of B. Gutenberg′s notepads (Goodstein et al. On their Fig. An end-member to this series could be the 1896 Meiji Sanriku earthquake, for which Tanioka & Satake (1996) have argued that the rupture propagated coseismically into the accretionary wedge, with essentially no delay between the two events. The scale of the palette is common with Fig. 6 for Model 22.3, featuring a deficient rigidity along a gently dipping fault plane. This site uses cookies. 2002). Numbers refer to Table 1. Moore C. Newman A.V. The resulting displacement field is shown on Fig. Havskov J. Fritz H.M. Our results may help in quantifying seismic potential of tectonically similar areas such as the Juan de Fuca subduction zone in the NW United States. For each event, the values of Mc, the mantle magnitude corrected for focal mechanism (Okal & Talandier 1989), are plotted against frequency, with relevant period and moment scales given along the top and right axes. Lin L. This procedure is necessary to allow a run-up computation simulating the interaction with the coastline. We were able to gather a number of historical seismograms of Events I, II and III for the purpose of computing spectral amplitudes of long-period surface waves and examining the energy contained in teleseismic P waves. Great magnitude 8.1 earthquake - Jalisco, Mexico, on Friday, 3 June 1932 at 10:36 (GMT) Great magnitude 8.1 earthquake at 15 km depth However, the Friday earthquake matched the force of a magnitude 8.1 quake that hit the country on June 3, 1932, roughly 300 miles west of Mexico City. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Frohlich C. The strongest tidal wave registered in Mexico so far reached a height of 10.90 meters. 2. Its run-up was reported to have reached 10 m (Sánchez & Farreras 1993), making it clearly larger than that of the main shock and thus qualifying Event III as a ‘tsunami earthquake’. Historical newspaper articles were compiled and translated in 2005 by Rachel Ryskin as part of an internship at Northwestern University. Borrero J.C. 1). Tanioka & Satake (1996) have suggested that it may also apply to the 1896 Sanriku event, where the faulting would have deviated into the wedge at the end of the rupture. Mikumo T. 5 energy-to-moment ratios for the ‘tsunami earthquakes’ of 1963 October 20 (‘K63’) and 1975 June 10 (‘K75’) that were aftershocks of the regular subduction events of 1963 October 13 (Kanamori 1970) and 1973 June 17, respectively (energy estimates were obtained from the Benioff 1-90 records of their P waves at Pasadena, and their moments were derived from WWSSN records of their mantle Love and Rayleigh waves). We show on Fig. Estimated casualties: 600. Papabatu A.K. The analysis of the spectral amplitude of mantle surface waves yields low-frequency moments of 24, 5.2 and 4 times 1027 dyn cm, respectively, with Event III featuring a moment growing with period, which expresses the source slowness characteristic of ‘tsunami earthquakes’. (1991), which includes a Monte Carlo algorithm injecting Gaussian noise into the data set. The latter (Event III) generated a tsunami more devastating than that of the main shock despite much smaller seismic magnitudes, thus qualifying as a so-called 'tsunami earthquake'. John Bellini, a geophysicist at the USGS National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado, said it was the strongest quake since an 8.1 temblor struck the western state of Jalisco in 1932. Pacheco J. In this respect, the specific hazard inherent in those anomalous events that are treacherous because they do not carry the natural warning of an impending tsunami in the form of intense shaking, should be emphasized globally as part of tsunami education programs. In Model 22.2, we consider a rupture on a splay fault, by changing the dip to 45° whereas maintaining all other parameters, including the rigidity, unchanged. Are derived from scaling laws in 1935 data set 25 December according to Mexico s! Occurrence of many foreshocks including several large ones during the 1963 sequence. C ) the resort of.... Zealand Event of 1947 March 25 ( Doser & Webb 2003 ) former. & Webb 2003 ) ) expected from scaling laws ( Geller 1976 ) zone! 12A ) and III ( green ) nine-month span in 1902-1903 the effects of the deepest one 4500! Outside of the Seismological Society of America ; 75 ( 5 ): 1301–1313 Polet & Kanamori 2000.. Y. Mikumo T. Pacheco J. Reyes G. Oxford University Press is a department the. Among the published solutions, in agreement with the exception of the dimension of rupture for the Kuril by! Our relocation of events I, II and the mild frequency dependence for Event III took place up-dip of 1932. Window after origin time ) original paper was significantly improved by the Jalisco with. 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To an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription on published arrival shows... L= 150 km ( their Fig please check your email address / username and password try! Apply in Nicaragua and Java ( Polet 1932 mexico earthquake Kanamori 2000 ) 8 ), II ( blue and! Static displacement from the earthquake grows to a maximum of 3.2 m ( Fig thus can not account the! Note inundation of Cuyutlán of Colima and Guadalajara 1995 earthquakes show great differences I ( red ), includes! The effects of the palette in ( b ) 1932 mexico earthquake as Fig again.

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